A 400-ship Navy?

With the biggest NATO military exercise since the Cold War starting in Norway this week, there is another greatest hit of the Reagan administration replaying in Washington, D.C. — calls to build up the U.S. Navy.

Ronald Reagan’s two secretaries of the Navy, John Lehman and his successor James Webb, famously advocated a 600-ship Navy to counter the Soviet Union. Two decades after the Cold War ended, the push for naval buildup is back, from President Trump’s own campaign promise to build more ships, to detailed proposals from D.C. think tanks.

One new offering is from Thomas Callender, a senior research fellow at the Heritage Foundation. Titled “The Nation Needs a 400-ship Navy,” Callender’s report recommends stepping up ship construction to the tune of an additional $4 billion to $6 billion annually.

With that additional spending the U.S. would have shipyard capacity to meet the 400-ship mark by 2039, Callender writes. In his model force the Navy would get more amphibious assault ships, small surface combatant ships including the littoral combat ship (LCS) and future frigate, and combat logistics ships.

It’s a different geopolitical world with Russia’s shrunken naval capabilities, but the addition of China’s growing force and actors like North Korea are a challenge for the U.S.

“While 47 (U.S. Navy) ships in the Western Pacific Ocean may seem like a large number, a closer examination reveals how thinly stretched the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Fleet has become,” Callender writes. “First, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy alone has approximately 150 naval combatant ships ranging from frigates to large-deck amphibious ships and an aircraft carrier. If smaller combatants such as mine warfare ships and coastal missile patrol craft are included, the number becomes approximately 450 ships, which is almost 10 times the size of the U.S. Seventh Fleet.

“When the Russian Pacific Fleet and the North Korean navy are added, the regional naval capacity mismatch only increases,” Callender continued. “Admittedly, it is unlikely that the U.S. Navy would be involved in simultaneous conflicts against these three naval forces, but to deter all three nations effectively, it must provide a credible regional naval capacity. Although the capabilities of an Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer are vastly superior to those of a Chinese coastal missile patrol craft, an overwhelming quantity advantage can help to mitigate this disparity.”

The Heritage proposal is short of the 1980s call for 600 ships, but still more than the Navy’s own most recent requirement for 355 ships. The paper makes the case that 400 ships is the minimum for maintaining 13 carrier strike groups and a dozen expeditionary strike groups, with the capability to fight two major regional wars at the same time.

That would also ensure the Navy can maintain its historic posture of 100 ships forward deployed around the world, and have a 20% reserve strength.

After four collisions and groundings during 2017, the Navy has had to face questions about its force being stretched too thin. It’s time for policymakers in Washington to focus on those needs.

About the author

Kirk Moore

Associate Editor Kirk Moore was a reporter for the Asbury Park Press for over 30 years before joining WorkBoat in 2015. He wrote several award-winning stories on marine, environmental, coastal and military issues that helped drive federal and state government policy changes. He has also been a field editor for WorkBoat’s sister publication, National Fisherman, for almost 25 years. Moore was awarded the Online News Association 2011 Knight Award for Public Service for the “Barnegat Bay Under Stress,” 2010 series that led to the New Jersey state government’s restoration plan. He lives in West Creek, N.J.


  1. Avatar

    Unless something changes we’re going to be in a war with China long before 2039. China is expanding their military faster that Hitler’s Germany. What do you suppose they have on their minds? A regatta? I served in a 1000 ship navy. At least 15 attack carriers and several modernized WWII carriers that had been used with jets. Probably 25 carriers all together. Many more subs and destroyers. And a legitimate naval reserve fleet. What happens when a couple carriers are sunk or damaged? Where’s their backup? My point is 11 groups can’t cover the world like we once did no matter how much more capable newer ships are.
    The recent collisions were not about “being stretched too thin”. Any coastal or ocean mariner knows there is no excuse for a ship collision with today’s electronics and a proper lookout. The collisions were from incompetence, the captain, some deck officers and their leadership.

  2. Avatar
    Robert Stanley on

    Please review the record about the ship collisions in Japan and Singapore. The training of junior officers was and remains a major factor in their incompetence. The middle level officers were expected to provide the human component of the overall training program, which depended to a great extent on programmed learning on computers. But the middle level officers did not have the time to provide the proper amount of human component. And the middle level officers probably did not have the training they needed to teach the junior officers in the environment where the programmed learning was dominant. I took 3 programmed learning courses in high school, and I learned, too late, that the quality of such education varies widely from course to course. The middle level officers might not have understood this, and most likely did not know how to compensate for the shortcomings of the programmed learning courses. It is vital for the military services to take better control of the education processes for their men, and to have the right to reject programmed learning courses which do not measure up.

Leave A Reply

© Diversified Communications. All rights reserved.